Confused about cascade impaction? Watch the new animations from Copley Scientific

Copley Scientific, the world’s leading manufacturer and supplier of inhaler test equipment, has released two new educational animations that provide a clear, easy to understand introduction to critical aspects of inhaled product testing. The videos, entitled ‘How does a cascade impactor work?’ and ‘System for improved in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVCs) of inhaled drug products’ are an excellent resource for training, for researchers new to inhaled product testing and/or those seeking enhanced testing strategies. View them at and

The size of particles delivered by an inhaled product influences where the drug deposits in the lung, affecting the efficacy and is therefore considered a critical quality attribute. Uniquely, cascade impaction enables the generation of an aerodynamic particle size distribution specifically for the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) within a formulation and is specified in the pharmacopoeias for the testing of all inhaled products. ‘How does a cascade impactor work?’ takes the viewer inside an animated cascade impactor – the Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI) – to provide a step-by-step explanation of how it separates and collects particles for subsequent chemical analysis (typically by HPLC). In this way, the animation supports the development of a robust understanding of this pivotal analytical technique, which can, at times, be a little difficult to understand.

Ensuring that data measured in the lab – in vitro – is as representative as possible of what happens to a drug in the body – in vivo – is extremely valuable for bioequivalence and further advancement of inhaled technologies. The second animation presents an optimal test set-up that delivers enhanced IVIVCs, relative to standard pharmacopoeial test methods, and explains how each key element works. Equipment highlighted includes the breath simulator, for the application of a patient representative breath profile; the Alberta Idealised Throat (AIT) for more realistic modelling of the human throat; and the Mixing Inlet – a key piece of equipment that enables application of a variable flow rate through the inhaler, whilst maintaining a constant flow rate through the cascade impactor; in this case the Next Generation Impactor (NGI). Cascade impactors must always be operated at a constant flow rate, which has, until now, been a limitation of this methodology when considering improving IVIVCs. To watch the animations go to and or to find out more about the Copley range visit

Copley Scientific releases new educational animations

About Copley Scientific

Copley Scientific is recognised as the world’s leading manufacturer and supplier of inhaler test equipment and is a major provider of testing systems for other pharmaceutical dosage forms. The company is also active in detergent testing, air sampling and aerosol characterisation.

Copley Scientific’s pharmaceutical product range includes test equipment for delivered dose uniformity and aerodynamic particle size measurement of metered-dose inhalers, dry powder inhalers, nebulizers and nasal sprays; as well as tablets (dissolution, disintegration, friability and hardness) capsules, powders, suppositories and transdermals.

Copley Scientific has offices in the UK and Switzerland. The company works in partnership with aerosol particle science experts MSP Corporation in North America and also distributes MSP Corporation’s air sampling and aerosol characterisation products throughout Europe.

Serving the pharmaceutical and associated industries, Copley Scientific offers an extensive range of equipment for research, development and quality control, as well as full validation and aftersales services. This broad range of products is supplied and supported worldwide through a network of specialist distributors.